Vitamin D deficiency directly linked to dementia: genetic study

Friday, 17 June, 2022

Vitamin D deficiency directly linked to dementia: genetic study

Dementia is one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people worldwide, affecting thinking and behaviours as they age. Around 487,500 Australians live with dementia and it is the country’s second leading cause of death. But what if you could stop this degenerative disease in its tracks?

A new study from the University of South Australia could make this a reality as new genetic research shows a direct link between dementia and a lack of vitamin D.

Investigating the association between vitamin D, neuroimaging features and the risk of dementia and stroke, the study found:

  • Low levels of vitamin D were associated with lower brain volumes and an increased risk of dementia and stroke.
  • Genetic analyses supported a causal effect of vitamin D deficiency and dementia.
  • In some populations as much as 17% of dementia cases might be prevented by increasing everyone to normal levels of vitamin D (50 nmol/L).

Supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council, the genetic study analysed data from 294,514 participants from the UK Biobank, examining the impact of low levels of vitamin D (25 nmol/L) and the risk of dementia and stroke.

Nonlinear Mendelian randomisation (MR) — a method of using measured variation in genes to examine the causal effect of a modifiable exposure on disease — was used to test for underlying causality for neuroimaging outcomes, dementia and stroke.

Professor Elina Hyppönen, Senior investigator and Director of UniSA’s Australian Centre for Precision Health, said the findings are important for the prevention of dementia and appreciating the need to abolish vitamin D deficiency.

“Vitamin D is a hormone precursor that is increasingly recognised for widespread effects, including on brain health, but until now it has been very difficult to examine what would happen if we were able to prevent vitamin D deficiency,” Hyppönen said.

“Our study is the first to examine the effect of very low levels of vitamin D on the risks of dementia and stroke, using robust genetic analyses among a large population,” Hyppönen claimed.

“In some contexts, where vitamin D deficiency is relatively common, our findings have important implications for dementia risks. Indeed, in this UK population we observed that up to 17% of dementia cases might have been avoided by boosting vitamin D levels to be within a normal range.

“Dementia is a progressive and debilitating disease that can devastate individuals and families alike,” Hyppönen said.

“If we’re able to change this reality through ensuring that none of us is severely vitamin D deficient, it would also have further benefits and we could change the health and wellbeing for thousands.

“Most of us are likely to be ok, but for anyone who, for whatever reason, may not receive enough vitamin D from the sun, modifications to diet may not be enough and supplementation may well be needed.”

Image credit: © F. Young

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